Pioneers of Electronic Music

In 1950, the Columbia University Music Department requisitioned a tape recorder to use in teaching and for recording concerts. In 1951, the first tape recorder arrived, an Ampex 400, and Vladimir Ussachevsky, then a junior faculty member, was assigned a job that no one else wanted: the care of the tape recorder. This job was to have important consequences for Ussachevsky and the medium he developed. Electronic music was born. Over the next ten years, Ussachevsky and his collaborators established the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, which Ussachevsky directed for twenty years.

It was the first large electronic music center in the United States, thanks to the path-breaking support of the Rockefeller Foundation and encouragement from two of the country’s leading universities. The Center became one of the best-known and most prolific sources of electronic music in the world. All of the music on this historic reissue (originally released on CRI CD 611) is the result of the pioneering work of the Center and its composers.

The guest composers and Columbia-associated composers who have produced pieces at the Center include Bülent Arel, Luciano Berio, Mario Davidovsky, Jacob Druckman, Arthur Kreiger, Daria Semegen, Pril Smiley, and Edgard Varèse. Ussachevsky’s own students at the Center included Jon Appleton, Wendy Carlos, Charles Dodge, Robert Moog, Alice Shields, Harvey Sollberger, and Charles Wuorinen. Of the seven composers most closely associated with the Center from its early years, six are present on this disc.

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Personal Space Electronic Soul

Sub Rosa presents part 1 of a vast anthology of noise and electronic music to be released during the next years in seven volumes. An Anthology Of Noise & Electronic Music Vol. 1 begins in the 1920s, with the Russolo Brothers, and looks at each decade in turn -- Var‚se, Cage, Schaeffer, Xenakis, the great pioneers -- and shows the first traces of a music that was necessarily revolutionary: electronic music, created from nothing (and hence to be entirely invented). Some pieces on these CDs are certainly classics, but there are others, which, though old, were distributed informally or never even released.

The more contemporary pieces are, wherever possible, previously unreleased. In fact, more than the half of what we listen here is unreleased and unpublished. This 2xCD comes as a Digipak with 24 page booklet." Artists include: Luigi & Antonio Russolo, Walter Ruttman, Pierre Schaeffer, Henri Pousseur, Gordon Mumma, Angus Maclise, Tony Conrad & John Cale, Philip Jeck, Otomo Yoshihide & Martin T‚treault, Survival Research Laboratories, Einsturzende Neubauten, Konrad Boehmer, Nam June Paik, John Cage, Sonic Youth, Edgard Var‚se, Iannis Xenakis, Paul D. Miller aka DJ Spooky That Subliminal Kid, Pauline Oliveros, Ryoji Ikeda.

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Original Electronic Pest Repeller

The ORIGINAL PEST OFFENSE Electronic Pest Repellers Model #:POBD-I-01 Chemical free solution to pest control. This patented technology is an easy and safe solution that requires no maintenance or disposal of rodents or insects. Pest simply leave the home. Effective to rid home of mice, rats, and roaches. Microprocessor creates a force field in your home to prevent insects and rodents from nesting or feeding within the walls by sending electronic pulses through the wiring of the home, random digital cycling prevents pests from adapting to PEST OFFENSE. One PEST OFFENSE unit is effective for one level of the average size home, plug into any 110 volt outlet and simply walk away. Indicator light confirms it is work correctly. Plus has a built-in surge protector and nightlight. PEST OFFENSE is SAFE for: dogs, cats, ferrets, rabbits, birds, fish, snakes, turtles, reptiles, and hermit crabs and PEST OFFENSE is NOT recommended if you own: hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, minks, chinchillas, tarantulas, and other similar pets.

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Bose SoundLink Mini Bluetooth Speaker

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Andrea hi-fidelity digital USB PC microphone headset- USB 2.0 Full speed operation device class specification V1.0 pliant (digital audio device)- In-line digital volume and mute controls- Power on / data transmit LED indicator- Win98 SE / Win 2000 / Win XP and Vista patible- Mac OS9/10 (without Andrea Software) patible- Andrea noise cancellation microphone technology with highest voice recognition industry rating- Pro-Flex wire microphone boom for accurate microphone placement- 40mm Speakers with CD quality deep base sound and large fortable ear cushions- Stainless steel adjustable headband- Windsock for minimal breath popping- Reversible for left or right side usage- Folds flat for storage and portability- Extra long 8 foot shielded cable- Available with Andrea voice solutions software suiteANDNC185USB

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An Electronic Odyssey

The stranger-than-fiction true story of the father of electronic music is captivatingly told in this highly acclaimed and endlessly surprising documentary (Leonard Maltin) that garnered the prestigious Filmmakers Trophy at the 1994 Sundance Film Festival. Set against the backdrop of the instrument's ethereal sound, Theremin: An Electronic Odyssey is nothing short of sensational! In the 1920s and 30s, Russian émigré Leonard Thereminthe inventor of the world's first electronic musical instrumenthad it all. His self-named theremins were in high demand from filmmakers and musicians around the globe; he was married to a beautiful American dancer; he lived among New York's socialelite. And then, in 1938, he mysteriously vanished, not to be seen again for over 50 years!

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Wolverine Electronic Battle Claw

Kids can transform into the X-men's feral warrior when they slip on these authentically designed gloves with pop-out the retractable claws. The electronic slashing sound effects let them bring their favorite battle sequences from the X-Men films to life. Perfect for endless hours of role play. Requires 6 "button cell" batteries included

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Save Time and Money with Electronic Check Processing

What is Electronic Check Processing?

Electronic check processing means that you can convert a paper check received from a customer into an electronic transfer (sometimes called an e-check) that takes funds from your customer's account and places them into your account. (You may have seen transactions of this type on your checking statement.) This transfer takes place via the Federal Reserve Bank's Automated Clearing House (ACH) system. It's a faster, less-expensive way to get your money.

What is the ACH Network?
Put very simply, the ACH network moves money from one entity to another--electronically. The Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network is a highly reliable and efficient nationwide batch-oriented electronic funds transfer system which provide for the interbank clearing of electronic payments for participating depository financial institutions. The Federal Reserve and Electronic Payments Network act as ACH Operators, central clearing facilities through which financial institutions transmit or receive ACH entries. The process is governed by NACHA, The National Automated Clearing House Association (, operating rules and business processes.

ACH Transaction Types:

Direct Deposit of payroll, Social Security and other government benefits, and tax refunds Direct Payment of consumer bills such as loans, utility bills and insurance premiums Business-to-business payments Electronic Checks (E-checks) E-commerce payments Federal, state and local tax payments.

If you're getting your paychecks directly deposited into your bank account, you're already using the ACH network. You can leverage this system for your business so that you never need to go to the bank again--you can process checks electronically from your computer.

Processing Electronic Checks

Electronic check processing is the means by which you can take a paper check and submit it for payment electronically instead of taking it to the bank. Your bank may offer you this capability if you purchase a check scanner from them. The scanner takes an image of the check and submits that image to the bank electronically. The bank then processes that check just as if you had handed over the physical check itself.

An easier way to process checks electronically is to use a software program or a web-based payment processing service. When using a web-based system or ASP, you don't need to install any software or buy any hardware. You simply key in check information and submit the transaction.

The process is simple:

1. Notify
You must notify your customers that their paper checks will be processed electronically. You can do this in writing on your invoices, or you can post a sign with this information at your place of business.

2. Collect and Convert

When a paper check is presented as payment, it is converted to a one-time ACH-based electronic payment, with pertinent information regarding the customer's financial institution and account number captured. You then make an image for archival purposes (you should keep this copy for 2 years), stamp the original check "VOID" and discard it.

3. Process

An ACH file is created and presented to your financial institution--this is typically done by the payment processing system you are using; the payments are processed through the ACH network, the customer's account is debited, and your account is credited. It typically takes about two business days for the money to reach your account; this is about the same time it takes when you submit a paper check to the bank. However, you will be notified of insufficient funds in about 48 hours with an electronic transaction--it can take over a week to get that information with a traditional transaction.

4. Confirm.

Once your customer's account is electronically debited, the payment is listed on their bank account statement under "other electronic payments" or a similarly labeled area. The description will include the check number, amount, and the billing company name. Your customers won't be able to get a copy of the check with their statements, but they can request that you provide a copy (which is why you need to keep one in your files).

Electronic Check Processing Enables Your Business To:

Improve cash flow with quicker access to your money Save your customers time and money Increase on-time collections Receive 48-hour notification of NSF Eliminate manual reconciliation of insufficient funds Eliminate time-wasting trips to the bank
Why Use Electronic Check Processing?

It costs on average $1.22, in manpower and incidental costs, to process a paper check. Electronically processing that check can cost as little as 55 cents. Check conversion requires very little effort or time to set up, and once it is established, your company immediately begins saving money. Your customers will appreciate the convenience too! With electronic check (or e-check) processing they can give you the check information over the phone, or submit it via an online form. They no longer need to pay postage! Check conversion relies on the same secure network used for Direct Deposit and Direct Payment, the Automated Clearing House (ACH). The Federal Reserve's Regulation E and the NACHA Operating Rules regulate electronic payments processed through the ACH network.

Because of Reg E and NACHA's Operating Rules, consumers have greater protection with check conversion. Check conversion is the fastest-growing type of electronic payment ever. Over 1 billion consumer bill payments by check were successfully converted to ACH payments in 2004. Check conversion reduces time and resources needed to process payments, resulting in continued cost savings to your company. Electronic processing reduces the burden on our nation's transportation systems and the environment. It takes a considerable amount of fuel to ship our country's millions of checks each year between companies, financial institutions, and customers.
(statistics provided by

Tips for selecting an Electronic Check Processing System

Choose a system that does not require you to purchase expensive hardware or software upfront Look for a flat rate on electronic check transactions--you should never have to pay a percentage of the transaction to the processor. Pay attention to both monthly fees, transaction fees, and monthly minimums to select a system that makes the most financial sense for your business Choose a system that securely stores customer information so that you will be able to eliminate duplicate data entry when your customers submit multiple payments. Choose a system that can easily export customer data so that you can automate your entire a/r system by integrating payment processing with your main business management software.

Look for a system that enables you to both process electronic checks and to do direct-debit transactions. (This means collecting from customer bank accounts without having a paper check--such as check by phone transactions, online bill pay, or recurring monthly charges deducted automatically from customer accounts.) You should be charged the same flat transaction amount for direct-debits that you are charged for electronic check transactions. Security is important when transferring funds electronically--make certain that the payment processing system you use has powerful security and encryption tools in place such as a 1024-bit Digital Certificate, 128-bit encryption, and a SSL (Secured Socket Layer) compliant with CISP -- Cardholder Information Security Platform.

Slimline Refrigerant Electronic Charging

TIF 9010A is a revised and updated version of the classic TIF Slimline scale, which brings greater performance, reliability and usability to the trade. With the greatest resolution in the industry, and no compromise on capacity, this unit offers features and specs that you won't want to do without. The TIF Slimline scale is compact in design, completely portable with extreme accuracy. Features include touch key controls, auto zero, three display modes Lbs. /oz. Decimal Lbs. Kilograms, very high resolution – 0.1 oz./0.005 Lbs. /2 grams, and a 110 Pound/50kg capacity. Can be used with all refrigerants and the removable control box has a prop stand or hanging hook for a variety of uses. Compatible with TIF 9020 for automatic capability. This is a new item.

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Victor Electronic Mouse Trap M2524

The Victor Electronic Mouse Trap delivers a high-voltage shock to eliminate mice in less than 5 seconds. Killing up to 100 mice per set of batteries (4AA), this trap is a great value! Easy to use, the trap is simply baited, placed against the wall and turned on. The trap uses advanced smart circuit technology to sense when a rodent enters the units. Once the rodent is inside, the system delivers a humane, high-voltage shock to effectively kill the mouse. A green light blinks to indicate capture and a red light blinks to indicate low batteries. Rodents can then be dumped directly into the trash for no-touch, no-view mouse control. The trap features a built-in safety switch that automatically deactivates the trap whenever its door is open. Additionally, its unique tunnel design prevents kids and pets from reaching into the trap. This patented tunnel design also prevents any escapes by holding mice in place over the electrified plates. Safe for use anywhere in the home, Victor Electronic Mouse Traps can be used for years to ensure effective mouse control.

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Victor Pro Professional Electronic Mouse Trap

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Beats Studio Over-Ear Headphones

The world’s most famous headphone has been completely redesigned and reimagined. The new Beats Studio is lighter, sexier, stronger, and more comfortable, with precision sound, Adaptive Noise Canceling, a 20-hour rechargeable battery, and RemoteTalk. It has all the energy and excitement you expect from Beats, plus a powerful, reengineered sound.

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High Accuracy Digital Bathroom

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Manual: Easy to read manual and easy to use design. A free body tape measure is included as an additional tool for you to monitor your health. Runs on 4 AAA batteries (included).

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Customer Comments: This scale is so user-friendly and fits my budget well since it's at a lower price than other competitors, BUT, it actually uses a lot more material and efforts to keep high quality. The big bright display with big numbers, the thicker tempered platform, the customer service, the "Smart Step-On" technology and automatic turning off, all these features make my purchase so worthwhile. Thank you for the excellent product... --Otto.

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Peltor Tactical 6S Active Volume Hearing Protector

The Peltor tactical 6S hearing protector muff blends comfort, performance, and protection with electronics that limit amplified sounds to 82 dBA within 5 milliseconds. An active-volume system provides distortion-free amplification of low-level sounds up to 19 dBA. The folding design includes independent volume controls in each cup.

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Electronic Music History

Electronic music history pre-dates the rock and roll era by decades. Most of us were not even on this planet when it began its often obscure, under-appreciated and misunderstood development. Today, this 'other worldly' body of sound which began close to a century ago, may no longer appear strange and unique as new generations have accepted much of it as mainstream, but it's had a bumpy road and, in finding mass audience acceptance, a slow one.

Many musicians - the modern proponents of electronic music - developed a passion for analogue synthesizers in the late 1970's and early 1980's with signature songs like Gary Numan's breakthrough, 'Are Friends Electric?'. It was in this era that these devices became smaller, more accessible, more user friendly and more affordable for many of us. In this article I will attempt to trace this history in easily digestible chapters and offer examples of today's best modern proponents.

To my mind, this was the beginning of a new epoch. To create electronic music, it was no longer necessary to have access to a roomful of technology in a studio or live. Hitherto, this was solely the domain of artists the likes of Kraftwerk, whose arsenal of electronic instruments and custom built gadgetry the rest of us could only have dreamed of, even if we could understand the logistics of their functioning. Having said this, at the time I was growing up in the 60's & 70's, I nevertheless had little knowledge of the complexity of work that had set a standard in previous decades to arrive at this point.

The history of electronic music owes much to Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928-2007). Stockhausen was a German Avante Garde composer and a pioneering figurehead in electronic music from the 1950's onwards, influencing a movement that would eventually have a powerful impact upon names such as Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Brain Eno, Cabaret Voltaire, Depeche Mode, not to mention the experimental work of the Beatles' and others in the 1960's. His face is seen on the cover of "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band", the Beatles' 1967 master Opus. Let's start, however, by traveling a little further back in time.

The Turn of the 20th Century

Time stood still for this stargazer when I originally discovered that the first documented, exclusively electronic, concerts were not in the 1970's or 1980's but in the 1920's!

The first purely electronic instrument, the Theremin, which is played without touch, was invented by Russian scientist and cellist, Lev Termen (1896-1993), circa 1919.

In 1924, the Theremin made its concert debut with the Leningrad Philharmonic. Interest generated by the theremin drew audiences to concerts staged across Europe and Britain. In 1930, the prestigious Carnegie Hall in New York, experienced a performance of classical music using nothing but a series of ten theremins. Watching a number of skilled musicians playing this eerie sounding instrument by waving their hands around its antennae must have been so exhilarating, surreal and alien for a pre-tech audience!

For those interested, check out the recordings of Theremin virtuoso Clara Rockmore (1911-1998). Lithuanian born Rockmore (Reisenberg) worked with its inventor in New York to perfect the instrument during its early years and became its most acclaimed, brilliant and recognized performer and representative throughout her life.

In retrospect Clara, was the first celebrated 'star' of genuine electronic music. You are unlikely to find more eerie, yet beautiful performances of classical music on the Theremin. She's definitely a favorite of mine!

Electronic Music in Sci-Fi, Cinema and Television

Unfortunately, and due mainly to difficulty in skill mastering, the Theremin's future as a musical instrument was short lived. Eventually, it found a niche in 1950's Sci-Fi films. The 1951 cinema classic "The Day the Earth Stood Still", with a soundtrack by influential American film music composer Bernard Hermann (known for Alfred Hitchcock's "Psycho", etc.), is rich with an 'extraterrestrial' score using two Theremins and other electronic devices melded with acoustic instrumentation.

Using the vacuum-tube oscillator technology of the Theremin, French cellist and radio telegraphist, Maurice Martenot (1898-1980), began developing the Ondes Martenot (in French, known as the Martenot Wave) in 1928.

Employing a standard and familiar keyboard which could be more easily mastered by a musician, Martenot's instrument succeeded where the Theremin failed in being user-friendly. In fact, it became the first successful electronic instrument to be used by composers and orchestras of its period until the present day.

It is featured on the theme to the original 1960's TV series "Star Trek", and can be heard on contemporary recordings by the likes of Radiohead and Brian Ferry.

The expressive multi-timbral Ondes Martenot, although monophonic, is the closest instrument of its generation I have heard which approaches the sound of modern synthesis.

"Forbidden Planet", released in 1956, was the first major commercial studio film to feature an exclusively electronic soundtrack... aside from introducing Robbie the Robot and the stunning Anne Francis! The ground-breaking score was produced by husband and wife team Louis and Bebe Barron who, in the late 1940's, established the first privately owned recording studio in the USA recording electronic experimental artists such as the iconic John Cage (whose own Avante Garde work challenged the definition of music itself!).

The Barrons are generally credited for having widening the application of electronic music in cinema. A soldering iron in one hand, Louis built circuitry which he manipulated to create a plethora of bizarre, 'unearthly' effects and motifs for the movie. Once performed, these sounds could not be replicated as the circuit would purposely overload, smoke and burn out to produce the desired sound result.

Consequently, they were all recorded to tape and Bebe sifted through hours of reels edited what was deemed usable, then re-manipulated these with delay and reverberation and creatively dubbed the end product using multiple tape decks.

In addition to this laborious work method, I feel compelled to include that which is, arguably, the most enduring and influential electronic Television signature ever: the theme to the long running 1963 British Sci-Fi adventure series, "Dr. Who". It was the first time a Television series featured a solely electronic theme. The theme to "Dr. Who" was created at the legendary BBC Radiophonic Workshop using tape loops and test oscillators to run through effects, record these to tape, then were re-manipulated and edited by another Electro pioneer, Delia Derbyshire, interpreting the composition of Ron Grainer.

As you can see, electronic music's prevalent usage in vintage Sci-Fi was the principle source of the general public's perception of this music as being 'other worldly' and 'alien-bizarre sounding'. This remained the case till at least 1968 with the release of the hit album "Switched-On Bach" performed entirely on a Moog modular synthesizer by Walter Carlos (who, with a few surgical nips and tucks, subsequently became Wendy Carlos).

The 1970's expanded electronic music's profile with the break through of bands like Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream, and especially the 1980's when it found more mainstream acceptance.

The Mid 1900's: Musique Concrete

In its development through the 1900's, electronic music was not solely confined to electronic circuitry being manipulated to produce sound. Back in the 1940's, a relatively new German invention - the reel-to-reel tape recorder developed in the 1930's - became the subject of interest to a number of Avante Garde European composers, most notably the French radio broadcaster and composer Pierre Schaeffer (1910-1995) who developed a montage technique he called Musique Concrete.

Musique Concrete (meaning 'real world' existing sounds as opposed to artificial or acoustic ones produced by musical instruments) broadly involved the splicing together of recorded segments of tape containing 'found' sounds - natural, environmental, industrial and human - and manipulating these with effects such as delay, reverb, distortion, speeding up or slowing down of tape-speed (varispeed), reversing, etc.

Stockhausen actually held concerts utilizing his Musique Concrete works as backing tapes (by this stage electronic as well as 'real world' sounds were used on the recordings) on top of which live instruments would be performed by classical players responding to the mood and motifs they were hearing!

Musique Concrete had a wide impact not only on Avante Garde and effects libraries, but also on the contemporary music of the 1960's and 1970's. Important works to check are the Beatles' use of this method in ground-breaking tracks like 'Tomorrow Never Knows', 'Revolution No. 9' and 'Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite', as well as Pink Floyd albums "Umma Gumma", "Dark Side of the Moon" and Frank Zappa's "Lumpy Gravy". All used tape cut-ups and home-made tape loops often fed live into the main mixdown.

Today this can be performed with simplicity using digital sampling, but yesterday's heroes labored hours, days and even weeks to perhaps complete a four minute piece! For those of us who are contemporary musicians, understanding the history of electronic music helps in appreciating the quantum leap technology has taken in the recent period. But these early innovators, these pioneers - of which there are many more down the line - and the important figures they influenced that came before us, created the revolutionary groundwork that has become our electronic musical heritage today and for this I pay them homage!

1950's: The First Computer and Synth Play Music

Moving forward a few years to 1957 and enter the first computer into the electronic mix. As you can imagine, it wasn't exactly a portable laptop device but consumed a whole room and user friendly wasn't even a concept. Nonetheless creative people kept pushing the boundaries. One of these was Max Mathews (1926 -) from Bell Telephone Laboratories, New Jersey, who developed Music 1, the original music program for computers upon which all subsequent digital synthesis has its roots based. Mathews, dubbed the 'Father of Computer Music', using a digital IBM Mainframe, was the first to synthesize music on a computer.

In the climax of Stanley Kubrik's 1968 movie '2001: A Space Odyssey', use is made of a 1961 Mathews' electronic rendition of the late 1800's song 'Daisy Bell'. Here the musical accompaniment is performed by his programmed mainframe together with a computer-synthesized human 'singing' voice technique pioneered in the early 60's. In the movie, as HAL the computer regresses, 'he' reverts to this song, an homage to 'his' own origins.

1957 also witnessed the first advanced synth, the RCA Mk II Sound Synthesizer (an improvement on the 1955 original). It also featured an electronic sequencer to program music performance playback. This massive RCA Synth was installed, and still remains, at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, New York, where the legendary Robert Moog worked for a while. Universities and Tech laboratories were the main home for synth and computer music experimentation in that early era.

1960's: The Dawning of The Age of Moog

The logistics and complexity of composing and even having access to what were, until then, musician unfriendly synthesizers, led to a demand for more portable playable instruments. One of the first to respond, and definitely the most successful, was Robert Moog (1934-2005). His playable synth employed the familiar piano style keyboard.

Moog's bulky telephone-operators' cable plug-in type of modular synth was not one to be transported and set up with any amount of ease or speed! But it received an enormous boost in popularity with the success of Walter Carlos, as previously mentioned, in 1968. His LP (Long Player) best seller record "Switched-On Bach" was unprecedented because it was the first time an album appeared of fully synthesized music, as opposed to experimental sound pieces.

The album was a complex classical music performance with various multi-tracks and overdubs necessary, as the synthesizer was only monophonic! Carlos also created the electronic score for "A Clockwork Orange", Stanley Kubrik's disturbing 1972 futuristic film.

From this point, the Moog synth is prevalent on a number of late 1960's contemporary albums. In 1967 the Monkees' "Pisces, Aquarius, Capricorn & Jones Ltd" became the first commercial pop album release to feature the modular Moog. In fact, singer/drummer Mickey Dolenz purchased one of the very first units sold.

It wasn't until the early 1970's, however, when the first Minimoog appeared that interest seriously developed amongst musicians. This portable little unit with a fat sound had a significant impact becoming part of live music kit for many touring musicians for years to come. Other companies such as Sequential Circuits, Roland and Korg began producing their own synths, giving birth to a music subculture.

I cannot close the chapter on the 1960's, however, without reference to the Mellotron. This electronic-mechanical instrument is often viewed as the primitive precursor to the modern digital sampler.

Developed in early 1960's Britain and based on the Chamberlin (a cumbersome US-designed instrument from the previous decade), the Mellotron keyboard triggered pre-recorded tapes, each key corresponding to the equivalent note and pitch of the pre-loaded acoustic instrument.

The Mellotron is legendary for its use on the Beatles' 1966 song 'Strawberry Fields Forever'. A flute tape-bank is used on the haunting introduction played by Paul McCartney.

The instrument's popularity burgeoned and was used on many recordings of the era such as the immensely successful Moody Blues epic 'Nights in White Satin'. The 1970's saw it adopted more and more by progressive rock bands. Electronic pioneers Tangerine Dream featured it on their early albums.

With time and further advances in microchip technology though, this charming instrument became a relic of its period.

1970's: The Birth of Vintage Electronic Bands

The early fluid albums of Tangerine Dream such as "Phaedra" from 1974 and Brian Eno's work with his self-coined 'ambient music' and on David Bowie's "Heroes" album, further drew interest in the synthesizer from both musicians and audience.

Kraftwerk, whose 1974 seminal album "Autobahn" achieved international commercial success, took the medium even further adding precision, pulsating electronic beats and rhythms and sublime synth melodies. Their minimalism suggested a cold, industrial and computerized-urban world. They often utilized vocoders and speech synthesis devices such as the gorgeously robotic 'Speak and Spell' voice emulator, the latter being a children's learning aid!

While inspired by the experimental electronic works of Stockhausen, as artists, Kraftwerk were the first to successfully combine all the elements of electronically generated music and noise and produce an easily recognizable song format. The addition of vocals in many of their songs, both in their native German tongue and English, helped earn them universal acclaim becoming one of the most influential contemporary music pioneers and performers of the past half-century.

Kraftwerk's 1978 gem 'Das Modell' hit the UK number one spot with a reissued English language version, 'The Model', in February 1982, making it one of the earliest Electro chart toppers!

Ironically, though, it took a movement that had no association with EM (Electronic Music) to facilitate its broader mainstream acceptance. The mid 1970's punk movement, primarily in Britain, brought with it a unique new attitude: one that gave priority to self-expression rather than performance dexterity and formal training, as embodied by contemporary progressive rock musicians. The initial aggression of metallic punk transformed into a less abrasive form during the late 1970's: New Wave. This, mixed with the comparative affordability of many small, easy to use synthesizers, led to the commercial synth explosion of the early 1980's.

A new generation of young people began to explore the potential of these instruments and began to create soundscapes challenging the prevailing perspective of contemporary music. This didn't arrive without battle scars though. The music industry establishment, especially in its media, often derided this new form of expression and presentation and was anxious to consign it to the dustbin of history.

1980's: The First Golden Era of Electronic Music for the Masses

Gary Numan became arguably the first commercial synth megastar with the 1979 "Tubeway Army" hit 'Are Friends Electric?'. The Sci-Fi element is not too far away once again. Some of the imagery is drawn from the Science Fiction classic, "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?". The 1982 hit film "Blade Runner" was also based on the same book.

Although 'Are Friends Electric?' featured conventional drum and bass backing, its dominant use of Polymoogs gives the song its very distinctive sound. The recording was the first synth-based release to achieve number one chart status in the UK during the post-punk years and helped usher in a new genre. No longer was electronic and/or synthesizer music consigned to the mainstream sidelines. Exciting!

Further developments in affordable electronic technology placed electronic squarely in the hands of young creators and began to transform professional studios.

Designed in Australia in 1978, the Fairlight Sampler CMI became the first commercially available polyphonic digital sampling instrument but its prohibitive cost saw it solely in use by the likes of Trevor Horn, Stevie Wonder and Peter Gabriel. By mid-decade, however, smaller, cheaper instruments entered the market such as the ubiquitous Akai and Emulator Samplers often used by musicians live to replicate their studio-recorded sounds. The Sampler revolutionized the production of music from this point on.

In most major markets, with the qualified exception of the US, the early 1980's was commercially drawn to electro-influenced artists. This was an exciting era for many of us, myself included. I know I wasn't alone in closeting the distorted guitar and amps and immersing myself into a new universe of musical expression - a sound world of the abstract and non traditional.

At home, Australian synth based bands Real Life ('Send Me An Angel', "Heartland" album), Icehouse ('Hey Little Girl') and Pseudo Echo ('Funky Town') began to chart internationally, and more experimental electronic outfits like Severed Heads and SPK also developed cult followings overseas.

But by mid-decade the first global electronic wave lost its momentum amidst resistance fomented by an unrelenting old school music media. Most of the artists that began the decade as predominantly electro-based either disintegrated or heavily hybrid their sound with traditional rock instrumentation.

The USA, the largest world market in every sense, remained in the conservative music wings for much of the 1980's. Although synth-based records did hit the American charts, the first being Human League's 1982 US chart topper 'Don't You Want Me Baby?', on the whole it was to be a few more years before the American mainstream embraced electronic music, at which point it consolidated itself as a dominant genre for musicians and audiences alike, worldwide.

1988 was somewhat of a watershed year for electronic music in the US. Often maligned in the press in their early years, it was Depeche Mode that unintentionally - and mostly unaware - spearheaded this new assault. From cult status in America for much of the decade, their new high-play rotation on what was now termed Modern Rock radio resulted in mega stadium performances. An Electro act playing sold out arenas was not common fare in the USA at that time!

In 1990, fan pandemonium in New York to greet the members at a central record shop made TV news, and their "Violator" album outselling Madonna and Prince in the same year made them a US household name. Electronic music was here to stay, without a doubt!

1990's Onward: The Second Golden Era of Electronic Music for the Masses

Before our 'star music' secured its hold on the US mainstream, and while it was losing commercial ground elsewhere throughout much of the mid 1980's, Detroit and Chicago became unassuming laboratories for an explosion of Electronic Music which would see out much of the 1990's and onwards. Enter Techno and House.

Detroit in the 1980's, a post-Fordism US industrial wasteland, produced the harder European influenced Techno. In the early to mid 80's, Detroiter Juan Atkins, an obsessive Kraftwerk fan, together with Derrick May and Kevin Saunderson - using primitive, often borrowed equipment - formed the backbone of what would become, together with House, the predominant music club-culture throughout the world. Heavily referenced artists that informed early Techno development were European pioneers such as the aforementioned Kraftwerk, as well as Yello and British Electro acts the likes of Depeche Mode, Human League, Heaven 17, New Order and Cabaret Voltaire.

Chicago, a four-hour drive away, simultaneously saw the development of House. The name is generally considered to be derived from "The Warehouse" where various DJ-Producers featured this new music amalgam. House has its roots in 1970's disco and, unlike Techno, usually has some form of vocal. I think Giorgio Moroder's work in the mid 70's with Donna Summer, especially the song 'I Feel Love', is pivotal in appreciating the 70's disco influences upon burgeoning Chicago House.

A myriad of variants and sub genres have developed since - crossing the Atlantic, reworked and back again - but in many ways the popular success of these two core forms revitalized the entire Electronic landscape and its associated social culture. Techno and House helped to profoundly challenge mainstream and Alternative Rock as the preferred listening choice for a new generation: a generation who has grown up with electronic music and accepts it as a given. For them, it is music that has always been.

The history of electronic music continues to be written as technology advances and people's expectations of where music can go continues to push it forward, increasing its vocabulary and lexicon.

Alien Skin is one modern proponent of electronic music and if you are keen to explore the development of this art form and how it has successfully splintered into different genres, in this case atmospheric, eerie & cinematic dark pop, download the latest couple of Alien Skin singles for free. You may do so by going to

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Electronic Works

La légende d’Eer is a powerful 7-channel electro-acoustic composition which Xenakis created in 1977-78. to be played in "Le Diatope", a curvaceous architectural construction designed by the composer, together with a visual component including laser lights. This "multi-media" work was composed for the opening of the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, where it was performed for three months and seen by thousands of people. • The sound materials of a La légende d'Eer stem from three sources: instrumental sounds, noises, and electronically generated sounds.

The work suggests an initial departure, a journey, and a final return. Xenakis surrounds the work with a compilation of five texts, reflecting or reacting upon each other across the distances in time, space, and culture which separate them. • This new stereo mix was created by Gerard Pape— director of Xenakis’ CCMIX studio in Paris—from the original analog master tape. • The analog master was transferred at high-resolution 96khz/24-bit sound for the optimum quality, revealing details not heard in the previous stereo CD release (now deleted). • Use of the original master tape restored almost 2 minutes and 30 seconds to the piece, released here for the first time. • Also available on DVD in 5.1 surround sound with visuals of the performance at Le Diatope (1978) by Bruno Rastoin and an interview of Iannis Xenakis by musicologist and Xenakis scholar Harry Halbreich.

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Protect Your Electronics From Heat

In our modern society, we have become very dependent upon our electronic gadgets and appliances. Most households (in the U.S) have Personal Computers with an Internet Connection. If we solely looked at the Personal Computer, we do a lot of thing with this product.

We communicate with our friends, family members and business associates. We conduct financial transactions (e.g., buy or sell products on line) We create all kinds of documents (which are very important to our personal and business finances/operations) We store and play music (in the form of *.mp3 files) We (increasingly) store pictures that have sentimental value (and could be tough to replace if lost).

For many people, anytime their "computer dies", it becomes a major inconvenience in their lives. If you were to look at some other electronic systems that we typically have in our homes, such as

DVD Players Gaming Systems (e.g., Playstation, X-Box, Nintendo, Wii, etc.) Audio Entertainment Equipment Video Recording Equipment (for you people that like to post videos on YouTube. Appliances (such as Central Air Conditioning Systems, Heat Pumps, Microwave Ovens, etc.) HDTVs (e.g., LCD or Plasma)

All of these items entertain us, enlighten us and provide us with comfort. These products each require a considerable amount of money to purchase. Further, repairing and/or replacing these products is also quite expensive. Hence, I am quite amazed that people do not do more to protect their investment (in these electronic systems) and do whatever they can to extend the operating life time of these products.

In general, there are three (3) different destructive mechanisms that will either destroy or greatly reduce the operational life-time of your electronics. These three destructive mechanisms are

Heat Electrical Surge/Spike Events, and Electrical Noise

In this article, we are going to talk about HEAT. As we discuss Heat, we will cover the following topics.

How is Heat destructive to your electronics? What can we do about heat - How to Protect Your Electronics from Heat and Extend the Operating Life of our Electronics?

Heat is an artifact of electronics. All electronic systems generate heat. Electronic systems accept electrical power (current and voltage) from the power line (via the electrical outlet). The electronic system uses a portion of this electrical power to perform work (e.g., the function that you want it to perform, e.g., play a DVD, cook a bag of popcorn, etc). The remaining portion of this electrical power is converted into heat.

However, heat is also an enemy of electronic systems. Few things are more effective in reducing the operating life-time of an electronic system, than raising the operating temperature of the electronic circuitry within your electronic system. If you were to speak with an Electronics Device Reliability expert, he/she would tell you that for every 10 degrees (Celsius) that you raise the operating temperature of an electrical device; you reduce the operating lifetime of that device by 50%. The impact of heat (in shortening the operating life) of your electronics is "huge".

As I mentioned earlier, all electronics generates heat. There is no way to prevent electronics from generating the very thing that can destroy it. However, there are a couple of things that you can do to prevent this heat from doing so much damage.

1. You can work to remove this heat from the electronics (as quickly as it generates it), or
2. You can do things to try to help the electronics to not generate so much heat in the first place.

I will address each of these approaches below.

Many consumer electronic systems were designed with "Heat Removal" in mind. Some of these electronic systems (like desktop computers) contain "internal fans". These fans were designed into these systems so that they could blow air through the area in which the system electronics resides. The intent behind having these fans to is blow the heat away from these electronics and to help keep them cool.

Other electronic systems contain "vents" (in their outer case) to provide an "escape path" for heat. Many of these vents are located at the top or in the "back-end" of the electrical system. On this basis, I have the following recommendations to permit the removal of heat from your electronics.

Make sure and keep papers, books, dust and other items from "blocking" the vents of these systems.
Leaving these items on top of your (DVD Player for example) will block the vents, and will not allow for heat to escape from your DVD Player. This will cause the temperature (surrounding the electronics) within your DVD player to rise; which will (in-turn) reduce the operating lifetime of your DVD player.

Make sure that the "back-end" of the electronic system is not "butt-up" against the wall or an entertainment cabinet.
It is important to make sure that there is sufficient air/ventilation space between the vents (in the back end) and the wall/cabinet to allow for Heat Removal.

Make sure and have your appliances (like your Central Air Conditioning system or Heat Pump) serviced.
Whenever these appliances are serviced, the service professional will do various things (like clean out dust and debris from ventilation path), therefore maintaining an unobstructed path for heat to escape from these systems.

Make sure that the fan (inside some of your systems) is working.
If this fan stops working, then you need to get it repaired quickly. Failure to do this will result in your electronic system having an early meeting with the "grim reaper" or an electronic waste disposal site.

Another approach to protecting your electronics from heat is to take steps to try to prevent your electronics from generating excessive heat in the first place. The amount of heat that is generated within an electronic system is often referred to as being related to the following expression for resistive loss: I^2XR, where:

I represents the amount of current flowing through an electronic system and
R represents the load impedance (or resistance) within this electronic system; and
I^2 denotes " I being raised to the 2nd Power, or "I-squared"

From this mathematical expression, you can see that if we were able to reduce the amount of current flowing through an electrical system, this would certainly help to reduce the amount of heat generated within this electrical system.

QUESTION: How can you reduce the current that an electrical system uses? Doesn't it require a certain amount of current to do its job? The answer to this question is "Yes", an electrical system does require a certain amount of current and voltage (electrical power) to do its job. However, it doesn't need to use anymore current than that. Hence, we recommend that you use TVSS (Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors) components in order to reduce the current level (flowing into your electrical system).

Now, I know that some of you may be "scratching your heads" and wondering, "How in the world will this reduce the amount of current flowing into my electronic system" and (in turn reduce the amount of heat that it generates)? The answer is this: Anytime there is a large amount of electrical noise or spikes, or other forms of distortion in the electrical voltage and current in the power line, this also results in the flow of additional current into your electrical system. By using the TVSS components, you are eliminating this excessive current (due to noise, glitches, etc.) from the "power line" current, flowing into your electronic system.

In this case, you have now accomplished the following:

1. You have decreased the amount of current flowing into your electronic system, (which is the "I" in the expression "I^2 X R") - which helps a lot to reduce the amount of heat that the system generates.
2. By reducing the heat that the electrical system generates, you are now lowering the ambient (or surrounding) temperature in which your electronics operates.
3. Lowering the ambient temperature will often times also reduce the load impedance/resistance in your electronic system (e.g., the "R" in this expression) as well.

QUESTION: How can you reduce the load impedance/resistance in an electronic system? Isn't that a design feature of the electronic system? The answer to this question is "Yes it is". You cannot change the load impedance/resistance by very much. But, the reason why lowering the ambient temperature will also reduce the load impedance/resistance is that many resistors have (what is called) a positive temperature coefficient. This means that as the ambient temperature goes up, does the resistor value of this particular resistor.

However, the converse is also true. If you were to lower the ambient (or surrounding) temperature, then you would also lower the resistor value as well.


Using TVSS components lower the amount of current flowing through your electronic system. Lowering this current reduces the amount of heat that the electronic system generates. This lowers the ambient temperature for the system electronics. Lowering the ambient temperature also lowers the load impedance/resistance (R) within the electronic system.

Both the reduction of current (and the resulting reduction of the load impedance) would serve to significantly reduce the amount of heat that the electronics system will generates.

Other articles in this series are listed below.

How to Protect Your Electronics from Electrical Surge/Spike Events How to Protect Your Electronics from Electrical Noise

In this article, we spoke about "heat" and how effective it is in reducing the operating life-time of your electronics. Heat is one of the three (3) destructive mechanisms that will either destroy or shorten the operational life-time of your electronics. The remaining two mechanisms are

Electrical Surge/Spike Events, and Electrical Noise

We have also described some guidelines on how to protect your electronics from heat, and to extend the operating life-time of your electronics. In particular, we mentioned the following approaches:

1. Use (and do not thwart) the "Heat Removal" features of your electronic systems
Make sure that Internal Fans are working and Make sure that vents are not blocks and that there is plenty of air space around the Electronic system to allow for the escape of heat.
2. Use TVSS (Transient Voltage Surge Suppressor) components to regulate the amount of voltage (and in turn) current that is flowing into your electronic systems: Minimizes heat generation due to resistive loss.

Do you wish to learn more about approaches to protect your electronics from the affects of heat, electrical surge events and electrical noise?

Click here to learn more about an approach to protect your electronics from all three of these destructive mechanisms and extend the operating life of your electronics.

Darrell E. Smith has more than 25 years of experience as an Electrical Engineer. He is also an experienced Article Marketer and a Distributor for a Company that Manufacturer's "Healthy Living/Green Technology Products".

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Electronic Money

Commerce refers to all the activities surrounding the purchase or sale of goods or services. As we step into the next century, the Internet promises to bring unpredictable change in the society. Spanning the entire globe, crossing all boundaries, the net has redefined the methods of communication work, study, education, interaction, Entertainment, Health, Trade and commerce. There are some activities in commerce such as marketing, sales, payment, fulfillment, customer service etc.

Electronic commerce is the application of communication and information sharing technologies among trading partners to the aim of business objectives. Electronic Commerce is associated with the buying and selling of information, products and services via computer networks.

Electronic Commerce is a new way of conducting managing and executing business transactions using computer and telecommunication networks. Electronic Commerce refers to the paperless exchange of business information using EDI (Electronic Data Interchange), Electronic Mail, EFT (Electronic Funds Transfer) and other networks based technologies. Electronic Commerce applications started in the early 1970s, with such innovations as EFT.

Purpose of the study is to diagnose the state of efficiency in itself and trace out the factors responsible for lower or higher efficiency in discharging various operation and activities of analysis in Electronic Money security.

1. To review rational and motives underlying term lending agencies in the present day complex mechanism of Electronic Money.

2. To analyze the institutional and organizational constraints hampering efficiency, efficiency and effectiveness of Electronic Money.

3. To assess their quality performance through structural analysis.

4. To examine the impact of new business policies and liberalization on these Electronic Money.

5. To study and analyze the security of Electronic Money transaction.

6. To suggest possible remedies for these institutions to halt their present declining trends.

7. To suggest the techniques for lending to higher growth of Electronic Money security.

Advantages Of Electronic Money:

Digital cash will allow for the immediate transfer of funds from an individual's personal account to a businesses account, without any actual paper transfer of money. This offers a great convenience to many people and businesses alike.

Banks can offer many services whereby a customer can transfer funds, purchase stocks, and offer a variety of other services without having to handle the physical cash or cheques. Customers do not have to wait in lines, and this provides a lower hassle environment.

Disadvantages Of Electronic Money :

Although there are many benefits to digital cash, there are also many significant disadvantages. These include fraud, failure of technology, possible tracking of individuals and the loss of human interaction. It is very common that almost all systems have drawbacks. However, the question that needs to be asked is whether the advantages of using the system overpass the disadvantages.

Fraud over digital cash has been a pressing issue in recent years. Hacking into bank accounts and the illegal retrieval of banking records has led to a widespread invasion of privacy, and has promoted identity theft.

There is also a pressing issue in regards to the technology involved in digital cash. Power failures, loss of records, undependable software often cause a major setback in promoting the technology.

Fraud over digital cash has been a pressing issue in recent year. Hacking into bank accounts and illegal retrieval of banking records has led to a wide spread invasion of privacy and has promoted identity theft.

Power failures, loss of records and undependable software often cause a major set back in promoting the technology.

Frame Work Of Electronic Commerce:

Many people things Electronic Commerce is just having a web site, but Electronic Commerce is much more than that. There are dozens of applications of Electronic Commerce such as home banking, shopping in online stores and malls, buying stocks, finding a job, conducting an auction and collaborating electronically on research and development projects.

To execute these applications, it is necessary to have supporting information and organizational infrastructure and system.

Electronic Commerce applications are supported by infrastructures and their implementation is dependent on four major areas such as


2.public policy

3.technical standards

4.protocols and organizations

Peoples - Buyers, sellers, intermediaries, services etc.

public policy - Taxes, legal, and privacy issues, domain names.

technical standards - For documents, securities, and network protocols.

Organizations - Partners, competitors, associations, Govt. services.

There are some other area of Electronic Commerce infrastructure such as

1.Common business services infrastructure - security smart cards / authentication, Electronic Payment, directories / catalogs.

2.Messaging and information distribution infrastructure - EDI, Electronic Mail, HTTP.

3.Multimedia content and network publishing infrastructure - HTML, Java, WWW, VRML.

4.Network infrastructure - Telecom, cable, TV, wireless, Internet, WAN, MAN, LAN, Intranet, Extranet.

5.Interfacing infrastructure - To databases, customers and applications.

Electronic Money System Model:

The e-money system is a mechanism that facilitates payments - generally of limited value - in which e-money can be considered as an electronic surrogate for coins and banknotes. The e-money system is described on the basis of a model with a set of sub-systems through which electronic value (EV) is transferred, under the responsibility of a System Supervisor who monitors the security of EV creation, EV extinguishment and EV circulation within the system.

The three main elements which make up our e-money system model are EV, EV circulation between sub-systems and supervision. Put together, these elements constitute the core of the e-money system model. The notions of transactions, compensation, EV life cycle and actors then complete this model.

EV is a monetary value represented by a claim on an EV Issuer, which is:

- stored on an electronic device;

- issued on receipt of funds for an amount not less in value than the monetary value issued;

- accepted as a means of payment by undertakings other than the issuer.

The EV circulation starts with a first phase called EV creation, and ends with a final phase called EV extinguishment.

This model does not impose any restriction on the number of sub-systems that form an e-money system.

Transactions On The Internet:

All the transactions on the internet take place using the customer's personal computer and the seller's web server. Customers use a web browser to place on order with the merchant and specify their mode of payment. In the case of an online transaction the customer has the option of paying by credit card or smart card the customers can also to pay using electronic cash or a digital cheque . The software on the seller's server has to verify the order and has to settle the transaction by receiving authorization for the transfer of funds from a bank or the credit and acquirer. It is possible that the applications on the customer's, merchant's and bank's are not same. Hence the interaction across this step is achieved using a gateway, which is a link between applications.

The gateway allows for protocol conversion and communicates with the bank using the bank's private network or the internet. Gateway, more specifically common gateway interface (CGI) is a specification for communicating data between an information server, for example server, and other application. CGI is used wherever the web server needs to send or receive data from another application, such as database. A CGI script is a program that negotiates the movement of data between the web server and an outside application. It typically passes data, filled in by the user in an HTML form, from the web server to a database.

Payment System:

In any business transaction, the customer and merchant enter into an agreement. According to this agreement the merchant supplies the goods and services that the customer requests for while the customer transfers funds to the merchant in lien for the goods received. Thus the payment is the most important part in the sales cycle.

The general requirements of payment system's are-

(1)Confidentiality - the user expects a secure system of payment.

(2)Authentication - A method to verify the buyer's identity before payment is authorized.

(3)Integrity - It ensuring that information will not be accidentally or maliciously altered or destroyed during transmission.

(4)Authorization - It allows the merchant to determine if the buyer actually has funds to pay for the purchase. The merchant verifies that the customer's bank account has sufficient balance to honour the cheque amount.

(5)Privacy - There might be situations where both the customer and merchant would want to ensure the privacy of sale. example - a business conducting research might not the details of its purchases.

Types Of Electronic Payments:

The various methods that have been developed for making payments on the internet are electronic versions of the traditional payment systems that we use everyday. In our daily life we use cash, credit cards or cheques to make payments. All these systems are digitally incorporated on the web as e-cash, electronic cheques and credit cards.

(1)Credit Card:

Credit cards are the most popular payment method for cyberspace customer shopping today.

(a) The card holder- A customer or a corporate purchaser who uses credit cards to pay merchants.

(b) The merchant- the entity that accepts credit cards and offers goods or services in exchange for payments.

(c) The card issuer- A financial institution that establishes accounts for cardholders and issues credit cards.

(d) The acquirer- A financial institution that establishes an accounts for merchants and acquires the vouchers of authorized sales slips.

(2)Electronic Wallet Or Digital Wallet:

Secure electronic transaction (SET) protocol was initially designed by visa and master card in 1997. SET protocol meets the four security requirements for EC as SSL does: authentication, encryption, integrity and non repudiation. In addition, SET defines the message format, certificate format, and procedure of message exchange. The role of payment gateway is to connect the internet and proprietary networks of banks. Each participating entity needs its own certificates. To keep the consumer's certificate in his or her personal computer or IC card, software called the electronic wallet or digital wallet.

(3)Debit Card:

It is also known as check card, is a card that authorizes the EFT. EFT ,Designed to transfer a certain amount of money from one account to another. The customer's terminal can be automatic teller machine (ATM), PC, or telephone terminals. When we use a debit card, the amount is immediately deducted from our checking or savings accounts. The debit card allows we to spend only what is in our bank account.

Advantages Of Using Debit Card :

1.Obtaining a debit card is much easier than obtaining a credit card .

2.Using a debit card instead of writing checks saves you from showing personal identification .

3.Using a debit card frees we from carrying cash, travelers checks or a check book.

4.Marchants accepts debit cards more readily than checks.

(4)Smart Cards:

At present we carry many plastic cards such as credit cards, debit cards, charge cards, diving licenses, health insurance cards, employee or student identification cards and other.

Now for a moment if we think that all these cards are replaced by a single plastic card carrying all the information of the dozen or fifty cards. Not only dose it lighten our load, it makes identification and purchasing easer for us. Credit, debit and charge cards currently store limited information about us in a magnetic stripe. And unlike a smart card, a credit card dose not contain cash - it only contains a number of an account that can be charged.

A smart card can store hundred times more information than a magnetic striped plastic card. A smart contains private user information such as financial facts, private encryption key, account information, credit cards numbers, health insurance information and so on. The current generation of smart cards includes IC chips with programmable functions.

(5)Closed Vs Open Electronic Cash System:

Electronic cash system can be either closed or open.

A closed system implies that the cash value in the IC card can only be recharged from a banks accounts, and the used money, which was collected in the memory of the IC card readers will be transferred to the receivers bank account. The direct transfer between IC cards is prohibited.

In open system allows direct transfer of money value between IC cards. Because Govt. are afraid of the risk of lost traceability money laundering.

Conclusion :

Nowadays the traditional bills and coins are giving way to the electronic money. With the wide spread of Internet this transformation is inevitable. It is obvious that digital cash is the future of exchange mechanism. It will surely condense many of the prevailing inconveniences such as carrying large amount of cash and will resolve many of the in-security issues experienced today. The electronic money would not only be quicker and cheaper but also more robust and easy to authenticate. People would not be apprehensive in using it as it will respect their privacy and will allow even small merchants to carry out the business all over the world. The digital cash will also reduce the cost of transferring the money internationally, which is quite expensive at present. The electronic money will not replace the traditional form of transaction completely but will facilitate it surely.

Felix Deepak Minj
HOD,Dept. of IT
Shekhawati Group of Institutions, Sikar
Rajasthan (INDIA)